Sunday, September 21, 2014

The Jugendstil or "Art Noveau " - the new art

Artistic Era and avant-garde movement : Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) was perhaps the most decorative style of the 20th century

Curved lines, floral ornaments and Symmetry: The Jugendstil, also known as "Art Nouveau" is perhaps the most decorative style of the 20th century in Europe. As diverse as the names were also the artistic movements that we associate with this era today. Together, all these movements had a fundamental concept: that would finally be an end to the historicism, its overloaded and useless ornamentation and its cheaply produced, but Protz producing ornaments. 

Where and when did this style? Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) is a flow, which was reflected in 1900 in a variety of ways in the arts and crafts. The Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) spread throughout Europe; carried from one country to another. "In the past, the secession names used were (style of the Vienna Secession), Arte Modernista (Spain), Modern Style (England), styles floreale (Italy) and of course Art Nouveau(France)," explains Julia Blaha, Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) expert in the prestigious Austrian auction house Dorotheum . The term "Jugendstil" was used in a Munich-based magazine called "Youth".

How was the style? 
One advance: 
Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) was not a closed movement. Rather, united in the Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) was a series of artistic currents of the "Fin de Siècle" (1890-1914).Cultural differences within the various countries of Europe led to a wide variety of stylistic forms of Jugendstil. "The difference between Art Nouveau and Jugendstil is a bit like the difference between the temperaments and lifestyles," says Pierre Brossard from Munich auction house quince tree . 

All artistic programs in common, however, was the rejection of historicism. During that celebrated past, the 
Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) sought to create something modern through the fusion of art and life. Art should be an integral part of everyday life. It is characteristic then that the era of Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) advertising was first operated by posters, designed by artists, as here, a poster by graphic artist and illustrator Alfons Mucha.

At the same time awakened in light of the ongoing industrialization of a longing for nature, resulting in the so-called bird of movement of pupils and students of the middle class reflected in industrialized cities. The artists wanted to free themselves from the strict rules of the school and social environment and develop in the wild, their own life. 
Not without reason, therefore, the 
Jugendstil brings many ornaments and patterns together that are borrowed from nature, reflecting the broad and societal longing.

By whom is this style originated? 
Especially young avant-garde artists inspired the movement. The well-known representatives of 
Jugendstil (Art Nouveau) in Germany were August Endell and Bernhard Pankok. At the European level was especially Clement Henry van de Velde, a Belgian-Flemish architect and designer, as versatile, the Viennese architect Otto Wagner again as a pioneer. Also prominent representatives of Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) are the Belgian architect Viktor Horta, the French jewelery and glass artist René Laliqueand the architect Antoni Gaudí. The latter designed the unfinished church in Barcelona, ​​which was built in the Catalan Art Nouveau or Modernisme. 

How do you recognize this style? 
Since the Art Nouveau (
Jugendstil) in each country had its own expression, there are differences between Brussels and Vienna, Paris and Berlin. But: The Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) architecture should always be functional. Already on the facade should be able to see how a building was organized inside. In addition, modern materials such as steel, glass and iron were used, found in combination with a sweeping floral ornamentation. Florale, areal ornaments again in painting, art and furniture of Art Nouveau (Jugendstil). Typical elements of this were water plants, magnolias, lilies and animals such as peacocks or dragonflies. 

A famous and striking glass structure of the German (Art Nouveau) 
Jugendstil can be admired in Berlin: Hackescher Markt, once designed by August Endell, regarded as one of the most extensive Jugendstil Ensemble throughout Germany. In Paris there are the inputs to the metro, which often receive us in the Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) style. So Hector Guimard designs include the famous opening"Porte Dauphine" in the 16th arrondissement. In Brussels you can find masterpieces of Art Nouveau (Jugendstil), including the private house of the architect Victor Horta , built in 1898-1901, and now a museum. It is largely preserved in its original state - in the picture the staircase.

A particularly decorative glass was the art, as shown in the image. But even here there are differences: "Basically, you have to distinguish between two directions," says Julia Blaha. "First, the direction of the French floral glass art, in the Émile Gallé is responsible. Second, the Bohemian direction, which is characterized by oxidized surfaces and Glasaufschmelzungen. " 

But world famous are the "Tiffany Lamp Shades" byLouis Comfort Tiffany. He made ​​not only lights but also door and window glazing, stills, poinsettias or Easter eggs.

Which style replaced the (Jugendstil) Art Nouveau? "The detachment of Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) is of course the Art Deco," says Pierre Brossard. "However, this separation did not happen exactly in 1925 there were shifts forward and backward. In Gallé there was again no Art Deco. Other glass manufacturers had already in 1915 tendencies to Art Deco. " 

More: What is Art Deco >>>? 

In this respect, the transition from Art Nouveau (
Jugendstil) to Art Deco is fluent. When in 1907 the German Werkbund founded to bring to the project, objectivity, simplicity and solidity in the design, joined him gradually more and more artists of the Art Nouveau (Jugendstil). 

As one of the main opponents of the Art Nouveau and decisive leader in modern architecture is Adolf Loos. In his essay "Ornament and Crime", he denounced ornaments as outmoded and uneconomic to: "Ornament is labor force and thereby wasted health. So it always was. Today, however, it also means wasted material, and both mean wasted capital "(Source: Adolf Loos' Ornament and Crime")..

How do we deal with it today with Art Nouveau objects? 

Tip: Straightforward contrast furniture 
The playful Art Nouveau (
Jugendstil) creates a special contrast to rectilinear modern furniture. Also deflects no more decoration in the room of the Art Nouveau (Jugendstil)pieces, the once desired effect unfolds: the integration of art into everyday life has succeeded in this guest bathroom.

Tip: pick up color 
The works of art from the era of Art Nouveau (
Jugendstil) are often very colorful. The colors contained in the respective plant can be colored revisit wonderful through elements in the room. This creates something holistic and epoch Cross.

Tip: Bet small, big impact 
Only at second glance, take the small Art Nouveau (
Jugendstil) windows with their geometric shapes in this room right and yet they give him a special atmosphere. Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) can act on its own and does not need to be brought to the fore. If the space otherwise reserved and decorated in bright colors, as in this picture, the view sooner or later anyway falls on the Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) elements. 

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